Advancements in Neuroimmunology


Clinical&Experimental Neuroimmunology deals with research on infectious disorders associated with immune system and nervous system. Neuroimmunology is the neuroscience specialty that focuses on interactions between the nervous system and immune system. Neuroimmunology encompasses fundamental and applied biology, immunology, neurology, pathology and psychiatry of the central nervous system. Scientists in the field study the interactions of the immune and nervous system during development, homeostasis and response to injuries with the major aim of developing approaches to prevent neuroimmunological diseases. Journal of Clinical & Experimental Neuroimmunology covers all areas of neuroscience, molecular immunology and clinical and experimental immunology. It deals with neuroimmunlogical disorders such as multiple sclerosis, myasthenia gravis, dermatomyositis and many disorders of peripheral nervous system. It encompasses both basic science fields, as well as clinical disciplines which deal with a special set of central nervous system and peripheral nervous system disorders until recently, many scientists viewed immune cells and the central nervous system as a deadly mix. We now know that the immune system is a key player in many neurological diseases and, surprisingly, that immune-CNS interactions may not be bad. The immune system's reach within the CNS is extensive, probably contributing to the initiation and pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism, and mental health disorders such as schizophrenia. These exciting revelations place neuroimmunology at the forefront of biomedical research priorities. With the potential to affect such a diverse array of neurological ailments, many of which have no known therapy, the hope to improved understanding of immune-CNS interactions to the light new paradigms for preventing and treating neurological disease. The immune system has been generally regarded as autonomous and the brain protected by the blood–brain barrier, (BBB) and in the words of Rudyard Kipling (Barrack‐room ballads, 1892), ‘never the twain shall meet’. In the past decades these dogmas have been strongly challenged and dispelled with the wealth of evidence showing that not only does the nervous system receive messages from the immune system, but that signals from the brain regulate immune functions that subsequently control inflammation in other tissues 1. Communication between the immune system and the CNS is exemplified by the finding that many molecules associated with the immune system are widely expressed and functional in the nervous system and vice versa. Cross‐talk between microglia and neurons is known to be essential for maintaining homeostasis, yet such cross‐talk also occurs between oligodendrocytes and microglia 2. Disturbance in this communication due to peripheral infections in mice are known to trigger microglia activation and augment neurodegeneration 3. Similarly, recent experimental studies show that maternal infections lead to long‐term changes in microglia and abnormal brain development in the offspring Although neuroimmunology research has focused on multiple sclerosis, immune responses are also observed in Guillain–Barre syndrome (GBS), white matter diseases, psychiatric disorders, infections, trauma and neurodegenerative diseases traditionally considered to be ‘cell autonomous. The scope of the Journal is broad, covering both research and clinical problems of neuroscientific interest. The major aim of the Journal is to encourage the development of immunologic approaches to analyse in further depth the interactions and specific properties of nervous tissue elements during development and disease.

Matthew Richard
Journal of Clinical and Expermiental Neuroimmunology