homeopathy potency

Image In homeopathy, a solution that is more dilute is described as having a higher potency, and more dilute substances are considered by homeopaths to be stronger and deeper-acting. ... Some homeopaths developed a decimal scale (D or X), diluting the substance to ten times its original volume each stage. Several potency scales are in use in homeopathy. Hahnemann created the centesimal or "C scale", diluting a substance by a factor of 100 at each stage. The centesimal scale was favored by Hahnemann for most of his life. A 2C dilution requires a substance to be diluted to one p... Read More

Localized Medicines

Image Localized Medicines Implant-associated infections present severe and difficult-to-treat complications after surgery, related to implant biofilm colonization. Systemic administration of antibiotics cannot reach sufficient concentrations at the infected site and may be toxic. Here we describe how mussel-inspired dendritic material coated on a titanium surface can locally activate a prodrug of daptomycin (pro-dapto) to treat methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The mechanism of the prodrug activation is based on bio-orthogonal click chemistry between... Read More

Renewable Sources of Energy

Image Renewable Sources of Energy The effect of ozone oxidation on properties of commercial carbon black supported platinum (Pt) nanoparticles for the methanol electro-oxidation reaction. The results indicated that the oxygenated functional groups could be introduced on the carbon black evenly with the increase of processing time. Apparently, mainly introduced oxygenated functional group is carboxyl. Platinum nanoparticles could be uniformly immobilized on the surfaces of carbon black treated with ozone, which has significant high electro-catalytic activity and stabilit... Read More

Platinum Nanoparticles

Image Platinum Nanoparticles Synthesis of platinum nanoparticles intercalated between layers of commercially available graphite powder samples possessing surface area values ranging from 20 to 750 m2 g-1 was attempted by the insertion of platinum chloride between the layers followed by hydrogen reduction. Platinum nanosheets with 1-4 nm thickness and 5-300 nm width and hexagonal holes were obtained for the graphite powder with 20 m2 g-1 independent of the platinum loadings (5, 10, and 15 wt%). Platinum nanosheets w... Read More

AAS abuse

Image According to the United States Department of Justice, 0.5% of the adult population in the United States (approximately 1,084,000 people) self-administer anabolic androgenic steroids (AASs) in order to improve male-specific traits . The National Institute on Drug Abuse estimates that a half million junior high school-aged children in the United States use AAS for this same purpose. Worldwide, a significant number of amateur and professional athletes use AASs to increase ... Read More

Dynamics of Filtration

Image Dynamics of Filtration The dynamics of filtration efficiency during graphite nanoparticles aerosol filtration on fibrous filters was investigated. The influence of water droplets in feed gas on filtration efficiency, pressure drop as well as the form and shape of filtration deposits collected on filter was examined. Moreover, the mass distribution of collected deposits in individual layers in the case of multilayer filters was examined. We have observed that during the filtration of graphite aerosol in the presence of water droplets the observed pressure drop is s... Read More

Polymerization Chemistry

Image Polymerization Chemistry Polymerization and modification play central roles in polymer chemistry and are generally implemented in two steps, which suffer from the time-consuming two-step strategy and present considerable challenge for complete modification. By introducing the radical cascade reaction (RCR) into polymer chemistry, a one-step strategy is demonstrated to achieve synchronized polymerization and complete modification in situ. Attributed to the cascade feature of iron-catalyzed three-component alkene carboazidation RCR exhibiting carbon-carbon ... Read More

Development of Solid Acid Catalyst from Biomass Obtained from Cake of Vitellaria paradoxa

Image   Development of Solid Acid Catalyst from Biomass Obtained from Cake of Vitellaria paradoxa An integrated approach is needed to make biodiesel production cost-effective and a suitable choice of fuel. This study was therefore designed to utilize the seed cake of Vitellaria paradoxa obtained during oil extraction stage for the synthesis of a solid acid catalyst capable of hydrolysis and/or esterification reaction. The seed cake was pyrolyzed in an inert tube furnace at 420°C for 5 h, and then sulfonated in fuming sulphuric acid (15 wt.%) at 150°C for... Read More

Chemical Process Design for Manufacture of Xylene Isomers

Image   Chemical Process Design for Manufacture of Xylene Isomers According to the World Energy Outlook, the demand for coal will increase if conservative measures are not taken. As a result, carbon dioxide emissions will increase from coal use. Current manufacturing facilities use a large amount of external utilities, but measures can be taken to reduce the amount of energy such a facility needs by using energy generated from process streams.  Using process data from a process of toluene conversion, the energy requirements for a pilot scal... Read More

Industrial Process Design

Image Industrial Process Design Process design and optimization are fundamental steps to ensure the economic sustainability of chemical processes. Suitable description of the performance of the various unit operations of the plant should be made and integrated, to understand the mutual interferences both under steady state conditions and under unsteady operation. Process simulation tools are helpful to compute both situations. The stationary case can be simulated with packages dealing with material and energy balances applied to each unit and extended to the whole plant... Read More

Alternate fuels

Image Fossil fuels are one of the major sources of energy in world today. It can be accounted to easy usability, availability and cost effectiveness. But the limited reserves of fossil fuels are a great concern owing to fast depletion of the reserve due to worldwide increase in demand . Biodiesel has become beguiling nowadays for it is environmental benefits and it seems an opposite alternative fuel for future, it’s made from renewable biological sources such as vegetable oils and animal fats. It is biodegradable and nontoxic, low emission profiles and also environmentally beneficial... Read More

Polyurethane

Image Polyurethane "The bacteria can use these compounds as a sole source of carbon, nitrogen and energy," The Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research-UFZ in Leipzig,"This finding represents an important step in being able to reuse hard-to-recycle PU products." In 2015, polyurethane products alone accounted for 3.5 million tons of the plastics produced in Europe. Polyurethane is used in everything from refrigerators and buildings to footwear and furniture to numerous other applications that can leverage its lightweight, insulating and f... Read More

Zinc Consumption During Sacrificial Cathodic Protection of the Bottom of Crude Oil Storage Tanks

Image The bottom of crude oil storage tank suffers from severe corrosion as a result of the presence of an aqueous layer containing electrolytes MgCl2, NaCl, CaCl2 and H2S beside porous deposits of sand and clay. Sacrificial cathodic protection using Zn anodes can be used to protect the tank bottom from corrosion. To contribute to the economic assessment of sacrificial cathodic protection the rate of Zn consumption under different condition was studied during cathodic protection in the present work. Variables studied were NaCl concentration, porosity of the porous bed overlying the tank bottom, h... Read More

Silver Nanoparticles Synthesis

Image Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are very popular nanomaterial. In addition to the abundance of silver in the earth crust, silver nanoparticles also have a broad spectrum of bactericidal activity, surface plasmon resonance absorption, and low cost of manufacturing. For these reasons, AgNPs have been used in many application, such as antimicrobial agent, part of environmental treatments, such as air, water, and surface disinfection, and as chemical sensors for ammonia, chlorine dioxide, herbicides, copper ions, and lead. The AgNPs synthesized by chemical reduction method. Chemical redu... Read More

Bio corrosion

Image For the majority of microorganisms the adherence to some kind of surface is essential for optimal living conditions including protection against external influences such as temperature, pH, or even biocidal agents. The resultant surface growth of organisms and their products, the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), form biofilms, which tend to coat virtually every material surface in contact with water. The attachment of microorganisms to surfaces and the involved EPS play a pivotal role in bio corrosion/ bio deterioration of materials and bioleaching of various minerals (mainly metal... Read More

Biopolymer Synthesis

Image Dependence on petroleum to sustain our current lifestyle has generated a myriad of pollutants that impose burdens on the natural environment, ranging from greenhouse gases and toxic by-products to plastics that may remain intact for centuries. More conventional manufacturing procedures use microbes as cell factories for the synthesis of biopolymers from renewable materials, whose biodegradability is critical to the reduction of plastic accumulation in nature. New DNA manipulation tools are constantly being developed and, together with our capacity to sequence the whole genome of host microb... Read More

GeoChemistry

Image All of the geosphere is being continuously crossed by fluid fluxes that vary either in flow rate or chemical composition. The gas geochemical techniques developed over the past 50 years have strongly contributed to better describing gas accumulations, gas fluxes and their geological causes. Gas geochemistry is a relatively new branch among the fields of geochemistry, however during the last two decades the improvements in sampling, storage, and analysis of gas samples have allowed gas geochemistry to emerge as an important scientific tool in constraining processes occurring in geosciences.... Read More

Polymer-Based Drug

Image Recent advances in polymer chemistry have enabled the preparation of novel functional polymers and smart nanostructured materials. These synthetic polymeric materials have made an enormous impact on numerous biomedical applications, and have the potential to address significant challenges in the efficient delivery of drugs, RNA, DNA, enzymes, and proteins. Ultimately, they may improve the diagnosis and treatment of diseases such as cancer, diabetes, dementia, and cardiovascular diseases. This Research Topic aims to highlight high-quality original research and review articles covering... Read More

Surface Chemistry (Polymer)

Image Polymer materials play a crucial role as substrate platforms in the fabrication of devices for many biotechnological applications. The success of these materials should be credited to their malleable surface properties as well as the adaptation of conjugation reactions to the material surface. The biointerface properties of these polymer materials—which include the ability to control the presentation of biomolecules with precisely defined chemical topology, smart response with respect to environmental stimuli, multiple functions that are simultaneously activated, and surface gradients... Read More

Nanomaterials in Nature

Image Natural nanomaterials are enjoying a surge in interest as a novel family of materials due to being safe and harmless to human health and the ecological environment. Nanoclays are an important family of natural nanomaterials, composed of safe, naturally abundant elements such as Si, O, Al, Mg, Ca, and Fe. Nanoclays have special nanoscale structures, morphologies and diverse dimensions from 1D to 3D. Nanorods, nanofibers, nanotubes, nanosheets and nanoarchitectures, widely used in modern industry and human life can all be found in nature. Thus, nanoclay-based materials have been rec... Read More

Addressing the fundamental challenges in Separation Science

Image In recent decades, the chemistry and technology communities have made rapid advances in separation science and technology. To take advantage of advances in experimental techniques, data science, and computation and simulation, key fundamental challenges in separation science must be addressed. Chemical separations are invaluable processes that underpin diverse chemical transformations. Virtually every product that people use depends on efficient chemical separations. Designing separations that have high capacity, selectivity, throughput and understanding temporal changes that occur in separ... Read More

Chemistry of Imaging Probes

Image Molecular imaging consists of the “in vivo characterization and measurement of biologic processes at the cellular and molecular level”. Any molecular imaging procedure requires an imaging probe that is an agent used to visualize, characterize and quantify biological processes in living systems and is specific for a given molecular event. Therefore, chemistry plays a vital role in the development of this cutting-edge methodology. This Research Topic aims at showing how chemistry can offer molecular imaging the opportunity to express all its potential. In fact, the most challengin... Read More

Determination of Particulate Matter using Chromatography

Image It is estimated that poor air quality contributes to almost 500.000 premature deaths across Europe each year. It is important that we identify the compounds in a Particulate Matter to understand its source and possible hazards associated with it which would allow regulators to target the source of the particles and to know specific hazards associated with the particles. Compounds like PAHs occur at very low levels in PM making their determination difficult. Recent advances in Gas Chromatography – Mass Spectrometry are allowing researchers to develop novel, accurate and precise methods... Read More

Transforming Separation Science for improved human and environmental health

Image Separation science plays a critical role in maintaining our standard of living and quality of life. Most of the industrial processes and general necessities such as chemicals, medicines, clean water, safe food, and energy sources rely on chemical separations. However, the process of chemical separation is often overlooked during product development and this has led to inefficiency, unnecessary waste, and lack of consensus among chemists and engineers. A reevaluation of system design, establishment of standards, and an increased focus on the advancement of separation science are imperative i... Read More

Toxicology

Image Toxicology Toxicologists study the safety and biological effects of drugs, chemicals, agents, and other substances on living organisms. They develop methods to determine harmful effects, the dosages that cause those effects, and safe exposure limits. Toxicology is a scientific discipline, overlapping with biology, chemistry, pharmacology, and medicine, that involves the study of the adverse effects of chemical substances on living organisms and the practice of diagnosing and treating exposures to toxins and toxicants. The relationship between dose and its effects on the ... Read More

Conjugated polymers

Image Conjugated polymers are able to conduct electricity because they are a chain of conjugated molecules where electrons can move freely due to their overlapping electron p-orbitals. Effectively, they are excellent molecular wires. Moreover, they are akin to semiconductor materials (they have energy gaps), so they can be used for electronic (plastic electronics) and photovoltaic (organic solar cells) applications. The electrical conductivity, Seebeck coefficient, and power factor of CP3–Na were estimated as 9.1 × 10−3 S cm&min... Read More

Journal of Medicinal Chemistry accomplished 9 Years Milestone in Research Publication Journey

Image The editorial group of Journal of Medicinal Chemistry is overpowered by the response and enthusiasm of the scholarly and inquire about supporters of distribute with the journal and participate in the year-long celebrations. During this year, we anticipate taking a few starts that would empower and compensate our imminent clients. It gives us extraordinary delight in declaring the call for paper on entering the 10th Year of the Journal at unique and weighty rebate of up ... Read More

“Petrochemicals” [Major holder of Industrial Chemistry]

Image “Petrochemicals” [Major holder of Industrial Chemistry]   Petrochemicals: Chemicals derived from petroleum or natural gas and an essential part of the chemical industry. It include the whole range of aliphatic, aromatic, and naphthenic organic chemicals, as well as carbon black and such inorganic materials as sulfur and ammonia. Petrochemistry is a branch of chemistry that studies the transformation of crude oil (petroleum) and natural gas ... Read More

Clinical Standardization

Image Clinical Standardization   Clinical Standardization is the establishment of standards and protocols for caregivers to follow when treating patients in order to reduce unnecessary costs, to avoid unwarranted variation in treatment, and to improve patient care and caregiver accountability. Benefits of Standardization: Reliable/high quality care Measurable and reproducible care Complex Decision Making Reviewed & Challenged Value-Equation ... Read More

Insights of Industrial Chemistry

Image Insights of Industrial Chemistry   Industrial chemistry is the manufacturing art concerned with the transformation of matter into useful materials in useful amounts. Usually this transformation of available materials into more desirable ones involves some kind of process following a recipe. In turn the process may involve grinding, mixing together various ingredients, dissolving, heating, allowing ingredients to interact (chemically or biochemically react forming new compositions of matter), cooling, evaporat... Read More

Journal of Industrial Chemistry Open Access

Image Journal of Industrial Chemistry Open Access   On behalf of the Journal of Industrial Chemistry Open Access, as Editor-in-Chief, it is my distinct honour and privilege to inform you that, it’s been two long years we have started the Journal, now we are celebrating the 04th Anniversary and we are privileged to welcome Clinical Society to our journal. As Editor-In-Chief it is my great pleasure and honour to welcome you to the Journal of Industrial Chemistry Open Access (ICO). The Journal of ... Read More

Journal of Industrial Chemistry Open Access Marks it’s Four Long Years of Journey by Announcing Discounts on Article Processing Charges

Image Journal of Industrial Chemistry Open Access Marks it’s Four Long Years of Journey by Announcing Discounts on Article Processing Charges   Journal of Industrial Chemistry Open Access (Omics Publishing) has announced almost 50% discount on article processing charge to commemorate it’s 04th Anniversary. The ... Read More

Advance International Methods of Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques for the Better future

Image On behalf of the Journal of Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques, as Editor-in-Chief, it is my distinct honour and privilege to inform you that, it’s been ten long years we have started the Journal, now we are celebrating the 10th Anniversary and we are privileged to welcome Analytical Society to our journal. As Editor-In-Chief it is my great pleasure and honour to welcome you to the Journal of Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques. The Journal of Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques aims to disseminate knowledge and promote discussion through the pu... Read More

Journal of Medicinal Chemistry: Open Access

Image Journal of Medicinal Chemistry (ISSN: 2161-0444) is a monthly, multidisciplinary journal based on two key tenets: To publish the most exciting, excellent, attracting and high quality research with respect to the subjects of Medicinal Chemistry. Secondly, to provide a rapid turn-around time possible for reviewing and publishing and to disseminate the articles freely for research, teaching and reference purposes. The Medicinal and Chemistry section publishes pioneering research across all aspects of medicinal chemistry and drug... Read More